Still Slowing Down
Year-end distortions have begun to slowly come out of the data, and while broad true US money supply growth remains fairly brisk, it has begun to slow again relative to January’s y/y growth rate, to 7.8% from 8.32%.
So far it remains in the sideways channel (indicated by the blue lines below) between approx. 7.4% and 8.6%, in which it has meandered since mid 2013. We believe the next break “below the shelf” is likely to be a significant event.
Readers may recall that it was primarily the US treasury’s general account at the Fed which was responsible for the recent upward spike in the growth rate of TMS-2, combined with a year-end surge in deposit money. We suspect the latter had to do with offshore dollars being moved to domestic accounts at year-end for various accounting-related reasons. This suspicion has been confirmed by the fact that the move has been largely reversed in the new year.
As an aside, total bank credit growth (total loans and leases, excl. mortgage debt) stands at 8.24% y/y as of the end of February, which is still well below the peak growth rates seen in previous boom periods (these were closer to 13%).
As can be seen below, the amount of money held in the general account has declined further in February as well, but it seems to us that this money has merely moved into other demand deposits, i.e., there has simply been a shift from one categorization to another:
Readers not familiar with the method we employ in putting together the true money supply should take a look at this excellent summary and explanation by our friend Michael Pollaro, which contains numerous links to additional references (it will be time well spent). The basic principle is that we define money in line with the following suggestion penned by Murray Rothbard (in New Directions in Austrian Economics, pp-143-156, 1978):
“Money is the general medium of exchange, the thing that all other goods and services are traded for, the final payment for such goods on the market.”
This means that some things that are included in traditional money supply measures are left out, on account of the fact that they represent credit transactions rather than money, while others that are not part of the traditional aggregates are included because they clearly are money according to the above definition.
Demand deposit growth has spiked at year end to nearly 12% y/y, but then crashed to zero early in the new year and has since begun to recover again. This recovery should at least partly be due to the above mentioned shift. Note that demand deposits consist of both covered and uncovered money substitutes (i.e., fiduciary media); the currently very high level of excess reserves in the system means that the proportion of covered money substitutes has grown strongly since the 2008 crisis.
The important thing about the above chart is that the annualized growth rate of deposit money continues to be mired in a downtrend, which is reflected in the growth of narrow money supply aggregates as well. We are still using M1 as a proxy for the narrow money supply. This is not perfect, but it contains the most important components of TMS-1, namely currency and demand deposits (while the lone non-money component is so small as not to matter).
M1 is more volatile than TMS-2, but often serves as a good leading indicator for the latter. In order to show this, we have plotted the monthly y/y growth rates of TMS-2 and M1 on the same chart for comparison purposes. As can be seen, during periods of heavy Fed pumping in recent years, the growth rate of M1 rose especially quickly, and it has also declined quite quickly since the Fed has stopped with its QE program.
Currently it is perilously close to the point where one would have to expect that various bubble activities in the economy will be seriously hampered. Among these are in our opinion not only the oil patch (which is currently getting a brief respite) and other commodity industries (such as the coal industry, which is basically disappearing from the US), but also numerous parts of the technology industry.
We believe that just as during the internet boom of the late 1990s, a lot of spending in the industry is highly dependent on credit expansion and the steady flow of investment funds nowadays. A lot of demand for data storage, assorted hardware, office space, expensive residential units, swanky cars and so forth is likely to disappear in a flash when the flow of fresh funds supporting assorted start-ups and “unicorns” is finally drying up.
The greater inertia of TMS-2 is due to its very large savings deposits component. While these deposits are de facto available on demand (the legal small print says that banks can in theory enforce a 30 day waiting period, which is in practice never enforced), it is clear that they are far less often used for day-to-day transactions.
In terms of effects on short term economic activity, it makes therefore sense to look at the growth rate of narrow money supply aggregates as well. Moreover, as the above chart indicates, in narrow money growth rates will often tend to lead (see e.g. the period late 2008 – early 2012), and we think this is once again the case.
Corporate Debt – Still the Economy’s Achilles Heel
In recent weeks, the worst hit sectors of the stock market have experienced large relief rallies, as oversold commodities and emerging market currencies have begun to rebound (commodities have followed the gold price higher with a lag, as they always tend to do). In line with this, we are now also seeing short term improvements in manufacturing surveys. Unfortunately, not much can be concluded from those yet (except, as we have been saying for some time, that there is no recession in train yet). Such bounces can be a sign that genuine improvement is in store, but they just as often happen just before the bottom really falls out for good.
As we have previously noted in an update on corporate loan charge-offs, perceptions about commodity prices have been altered by yet another massive credit binge in China (and the associated bump in China’s money supply growth rates). Moreover, the trend in commodity prices certainly depends not only on perceptions about economic growth. It also depends on the money relation, and the relative level of commodity prices at a given time (anyone remember “stagflation?”).
We have recently seen junk bond yields come in a bit (as bonds of commodity producers are rebounding), concurrently with a rebound in stock prices. Of course, one has to wonder just how many credit binges China can afford. Judging from the actions and announcements of China’s planners in recent months, they are trying to have their cake and eat it too.
Here is a long term chart comparing the effective yield on the worst-rated junk bonds (CCC and below) to the Wilshire total market index. We think we are so to speak merely seeing a pause that refreshes, but we will try to keep an open mind about it.
One reason why corporate debt in general remains the greatest Achilles heel of the economy is its sheer size. Below we show the total debt of corporate America, excluding foreign debt (i.e., the sum of domestic bond issues and bank borrowings). As you can see, the so-called “great” (and not to forget “beautiful”!) deleveraging was but a mere hick-up.
Egged on by ZIRP, corporations have continued to lever up, and are now in debt up to their eyebrows. This debt continues to be cheap, but a lot of it has been wasted on financial engineering instead of capital maintenance and expansion (and what capital spending there was has turned out to be malinvestment in a still growing number of cases). In short, we believe that quite a bit of this towering debtberg will turn out to be of the unsound variety and that eventually a lot of it will come crashing down.
Why anyone would think that the huge surge in debt since 2008 will result in a different or better outcome than the two previous debt surges depicted above is beyond us. Why should it? Quite the opposite seems likely – given that even more real capital has been squandered in order to produce ephemeral accounting profits, the eventual denouement should be a real zinger (that’s a scientific term used by some economists as a a stand-in for “doozy”).
Lastly, here is a chart comparing TMS-2 growth to total private credit growth including mortgage loans. Once upon a time, mortgages were a strong driver of credit growth – nowadays they are holding it back in aggregate terms. At the peak of the housing bubble in 2006, this debt aggregate grew at 13.52% y/y – nowadays it is growing at a mere 4.67% y/y, in spite of the enormous surge in outstanding corporate debt.
It appears to us that the slowdown in US money supply growth is likely to continue. We believe this is ultimately far more important for asset prices than European money supply growth, which is admittedly still going gangbusters.
China’s credit and money supply growth rates are affecting perceptions about commodity prices, and are therefore important for the short term performance of asset prices as well, but we suspect that the next set of problems will come from an unexpected corner and not from the one area everybody is focused on already.
This is why we are mentioning the technology sector as a potential “gray swan”. While everybody knows about the crazy valuations in private markets and the staggering amounts of money thrown at anything that moves and looks faintly digital, there is relatively little focus on how vulnerable this particular sub-bubble probably is. Keep in mind, this is not about the fact that there are likely numerous great ideas among the new businesses that have been and continue to be created. It is all about the prices that are being paid and the flow of money necessary to sustain them.
Regarding unexpected left-of-field problems that might strike the unwary, we also want to point readers to an article at Business Insider about Horseman Capital Management, which friends have assured us is a highly successful, fleet-of-foot hedge fund that makes its money from acting on unusual contrarian ideas. The topic discussed in the article is the likelihood of a banking crisis striking in Japan. As portfolio manager Shannon McConaghy remarks, in light of the importance of Japan as the world’s largest creditor, such a crisis could easily end up upsetting the global “risk” apple cart.
Experience tells us that one should occasionally look at potential vulnerabilities few others are considering, and perhaps not worry too much about what is already widely known. We freely admit that we have no idea what exactly will keel over first – but if US money supply growth does continue to slow down, something will.
Bonus Chart: Coal Disaster
Bloomberg informs us that Peabody Energy (BUT), a.k.a. “Coal’s Last Man Standing”, is standing no more. A mere year ago the markets were still convinced that if one coal company would survive the disaster that has befallen the industry, it would be BTU. Since then the stock has collapsed by nearly 98% – now the company has announced that it is delinquent on an interest payment and may be forced to file for bankruptcy protection soon.
A sizable amount of perceived wealth is about to go to money heaven, as BTU is weighed down by $6.3 billion in debt. It is the 5th large listed US coal company to sink beneath the waves over the past few years, along with hundreds of smaller unlisted ones. This will of course be to the benefit of the survivors, an increasingly small and exclusive list. In total, listed US coal companies have lost some $65 billion in market cap since 2011 – and are now worth a mere $6 billion combined.
This is a reminder of what an extended period of capital malinvestment can ultimately lead to. All the accounting profits coal companies have recorded during the boom have turned out to be nothing but smoke and mirrors.
Charts by: St. Louis Federal Reserve Research, StockCharts
It is that time of the year again – our semi-annual funding drive begins today. Give us a little hand in offsetting the costs of running this blog, as advertising revenue alone is insufficient. You can help us reach our modest funding goal by donating either via paypal or bitcoin. Those of you who have made a ton of money based on some of the things we have said in these pages (we actually made a few good calls lately!), please feel free to up your donations accordingly (we are sorry if you have followed one of our bad calls. This is of course your own fault). Other than that, we can only repeat that donations to this site are apt to secure many benefits. These range from sound sleep, to children including you in their songs, to the potential of obtaining privileges in the afterlife (the latter cannot be guaranteed, but it seems highly likely). As always, we are greatly honored by your readership and hope that our special mixture of entertainment and education is adding a little value to your life!
Bitcoin address: 1DRkVzUmkGaz9xAP81us86zzxh5VMEhNke
2 Responses to “US Money Supply and Debt – Early Warning Signs Remain Operative”
Most read in the last 20 days:
- A Striking Chart
The Economy and the Stock Market As long time readers know, we are always paying close attention to the manufacturing sector, which is far more important to the US economy than is generally believed. In terms of gross output it is the largest sector of the economy, and it should of course be obvious that saving, investment and production are the only ways to create wealth. What's left of the Brooklyn Domino Sugar Refinery. Photo credit: Paul Raphaelson Contrary...
- Trump and Putin Narrowly Escape Assassination Attempt
The Gloves are Coming Off First a little bit of recent history. Readers are probably aware that some questions about the occasionally malfunctioning Deep State android... no, wait, we'll start again. Questions have recently been raised about the health of presidential candidate Hillary Clinton by various “alt-right” tinfoil hat-wearing conspiracy theorists, such as this one. The monsters are normally hiding under Hillary's bed, but lately they have come out into the open...
- Why the Fed Destroyed the Market Economy
What Have You Done for Me Lately? Swing voters are a fickle bunch. One election they vote Democrat. The next they vote Republican. For they have no particular ideology or political philosophy to base their judgment upon. The primacy of the wallet. They don’t give a rip about questions of small government or big government. Nor do they have any druthers about the welfare or warfare state. In effect, they really don’t care. What’s important to the...
- Donald’s Electoral Struggle
Wicked and Terrible After touting her pro-labor union record, the Wicked Witch of Chappaqua rhetorically asked, “why am I not 50 points ahead?” Her chief rival bluntly responded: “because you’re terrible.”* No truer words have been uttered by any of the candidates about one of their opponents since the start of this extraordinary presidential campaign! Electoral map (note that the coloration may no longer be applicable...) That Hillary Clinton is...
- Janet Yellen’s Shame
Playing Politics In honest capitalism, you do what you can to get other people to voluntarily give you money. This usually involves providing goods or services they think are worth the price. You may get a little wild and crazy from time to time, but you are always called to order by your customers. In the market economy, consumers reign supreme. There is no such thing as a “lost” vote in the marketplace; every penny spent affects production. Mises noted: “Consumers...
- Get Ready for a New Crisis – in Corporate Debt
Imposter Dollar OUZILLY, France – We’re going back to basics here at the Diary. We’re getting everyone on the same page... learning together... connecting the dots... trying to figure out what is going on. The new three dollar bill issued by the Apprehensive States of America. We made a breakthrough when we identified the source of so many of today’s bizarre and grotesque trends. It’s the money – the new post-1971 dollar. This new dollar is green. You...
- The Economy, the Stock Market and the Fed
John Hussman on Recent Developments We always look forward to John Hussman's weekly missive on the markets. Some people say that he is a “permabear”, but we don't think that is a fair characterization. He is rightly wary of the stock market's historically extremely high valuation and the loose monetary policy driving the surge in asset prices. The S&P 500 Index and the NYSE advance-decline line. Most market internals weakened steadily until early February 2016, but...
- Hanjin Marooning in San Pedro Bay
Global Trade Reversal Expansions and contractions in global trade have played out over long secular trends for thousands of years. The Silk Road, for example, was established by the Han Dynasty of China in 130 BC, and allowed for continuous trade between East and West for nearly 1,600 years. In addition to economic trade, the Silk Road was also a conduit for culture and knowledge among its network of civilizations. A map of the main ancient Silk Road - click to...
- Great Causes, a Sea of Debt and the 2017 Recession
Great Cause NORMANDY, FRANCE – We continue our work with the bomb squad. Myth disposal is dangerous work: People love their myths more than they love life itself. They may kill for money. But they die for their religions, their governments, their clans... and their ideas. Famous French hippie and author Voltaire. He wears the same sardonic grin in every painting, whether he's depicted at a young or an old age, doesn't matter. His real name was François-Marie Arouet; he...
- The Donald Versus Killary: War or Peace?
War: A Warning from the Past Although history does not exactly repeat itself, it does provide parallels and sometimes quite ominous ones. Such is the case with the current U.S. Presidential election and the one which occurred one hundred years earlier. The Donald probably has the better slogan... The dominating question which hung over the 1916 campaign was whether the country would remain neutral in regard to the horrific slaughter which was taking place on the...
- A Rift in the Space-Time Continuum
Weird and Unnatural NORMANDY, France – First, a quick look at the markets. The Dow bounced on Monday, recovering 239 points of the nearly 400 it lost on Friday. Why the comeback? FOMC member Lael Brainard: her comments on Monday were touted as the “reason” for the stock market recovering half of Friday's losses. We suspect the real reason is the triple witching on Friday... Photo via twitter.com The financial press has a ready answer: “Stocks gain...
- Crimea: Digging For The Truth
Renewed Escalation This summer witnessed a renewed escalation between Russia and Ukraine after Russian President Vladimir Putin accused Ukraine of sending saboteurs to attack Russian troops, targeting “critical infrastructure”. Kiev denied the allegations and claimed Russia’s “fantasy” was nothing but a false pretense to launch a “new invasion”. August 10: Russian president Putin announces that there was an altercation involving a group of Ukrainian saboteurs at...