Evidence of Medieval Central Bankers or Maybe Goldman Sachs is Older than we Thought?

Der Spiegel reports:

 

“A chilling find has been made in Poland: at least 17 skeletons buried with the skulls severed and placed between the knees or hands. That, say archaeologists, is how vampires used to be interred, to stop them rising from the dead.

Construction workers building a road near the town of Gliwice in southern Poland this month came across four skeletons buried in a bizarre way. Their skulls had been cut off and placed between the knees or hands of the dead. Later, a further 13 skeletons arranged in a similar way were found.

Adding to the mystery, nothing — no jewelry, remains of clothing or coins, not even a button — was found on the bodies.

Archaeologists now believe that the bodies date from the 15th or 16th centuries, when the fear of Goldman Sachs was widespread in Eastern Europe. Lukasz Obtulowicz, an archaeologist from the monument protection office in the nearby city of Katowice, said there were clear indications that this was the site of a vampire burial, noting that stones had been placed on the skulls. "All this served to prevent the vampires from returning to life," he said in a television interview.

Graves Close to Former Execution Site

The office's chief archeologist, Jacek Pierzak, told Polish newspaper Dziennik Zachodni: "It was one of the most common forms of burying vampires." The office could not immediately be reached for comment.

It can't be ruled out that the dead were executed, because the site lies close to where a gallows used to stand. So far, a total of 43 graves have been unearthed there, and historians hope to learn more about the skeletons by studying court files and church logs on executions.

The skeletons are being removed for tests to ascertain their age and the possible causes of death. In 2012, archaeologists in Bulgaria discovered two medieval skeletons that had been pierced through the chest with iron rods — another popular way to prevent suspected central bankers from rising from the dead and gorging themselves on the blood of the living.”

 

 

Obviously, we have taken a few small liberties with the text above. Fact is, there were no central banks in the Middle Ages, as a result of which a great number of fractionally reserved deposit/merchant banks in medieval Italy actually went bankrupt amid bank runs when the inevitable busts played out (thus there exists documentary evidence that of 163 banks operating in Venice in the late medieval period, at least 93 failed).

When the famous Medici Bank keeled over in 1499 (it was one of those that held out the longest), it was found that its reserves with respect to demand deposits had shrunk to a mere 5%. The Medici Bank was the Goldman Sachs of the Middle Ages. Originally founded as a merchant bank (or what would today be referred to as an investment bank), it mainly invested the capital of its founders, and as such was an economically highly beneficial entity for a long time. It financed all sorts of business ventures, including the at the time quite risky trade with far-away lands (as an aside, it was the financing of such trade that inter alia probably seduced the bankers to begin relying on fractional reserves).

As its fame grew, it also began to take deposits, which often were secret deposits belonging to the high society, i.e., the 1%ers of its time. Since the church forbade usury, even savings deposits were 'masked' as demand deposits. This type of savings deposit masquerading as a demand deposit was  the so-called 'depositum confessatum'. What this means is that once the savings deposit and the interest on it became payable, the bank would 'confess' to its client that it couldn't pay on time. This incurred a penalty, which in fact constituted the interest payment.

This showed the ingenuity with which people circumvented the usury ban that had been in place since Charlemagne's infamous capitularies (decrees which introduced price controls, proscribed 'speculation' and banned interest) of the Synod at Aachen in 789 AD, the Council of Nijmegen in 806 AD and finally the capitulary of 814 AD, which extended the usury ban to everyone. Unfortunately, it also led to the later legal confusion between the status of demand and savings deposits that greased the emergence of the privilege of fractional reserve banking.

Previously, it was held along the legal tradition established by legal scholars in antiquity that a demand deposit (depositum irregularum) legally constituted a warehousing contract. Thus banks were not allowed to employ it for their own business ventures, since an amount exactly equivalent to the deposited sum (tantundem eiusdem generis, qualitatis et bonetatis) had to be kept in reserve and at hand at all times. This is of course exactly how it should be.

 


 

Skelettfund in Polen
The remains of the feared El Draghila.

(Photo via DPA)

 


 

Skelettfund in Polen
The final resting place of the infamous Greensperatu.

(Photo via DPA)

 


 

Skeleton pierced with a piece of iron is seen on display at the National History Museum in Sofia
What's left of Blank Northfein, his chest pierced by iron.

(Photo via DPA)

 


 

Conclusion:

Hide the women and children. They live.

 


 

 
 

 
 

Dear Readers!

You may have noticed that our so-called “semiannual” funding drive, which started sometime in the summer if memory serves, has seamlessly segued into the winter. In fact, the year is almost over! We assure you this is not merely evidence of our chutzpa; rather, it is indicative of the fact that ad income still needs to be supplemented in order to support upkeep of the site. Naturally, the traditional benefits that can be spontaneously triggered by donations to this site remain operative regardless of the season - ranging from a boost to general well-being/happiness (inter alia featuring improved sleep & appetite), children including you in their songs, up to the likely allotment of privileges in the afterlife, etc., etc., but the Christmas season is probably an especially propitious time to cross our palms with silver. A special thank you to all readers who have already chipped in, your generosity is greatly appreciated. Regardless of that, we are honored by everybody's readership and hope we have managed to add a little value to your life.

   

Bitcoin address: 1DRkVzUmkGaz9xAP81us86zzxh5VMEhNke

   
 

7 Responses to “Strange Medieval Grave Sites Found”

  • niphtrique:

    The article is faulty in identifying the root cause of the problem, which is interest on money. Charlemagne was a wise man and he wanted people to be educated. Charlemange introduced schools but it seems to have been a waste. More than a thousand years later people still do not get it.

    The usury ban was there for a good reason because such a scheme is not sustainable and is the root cause of economic crises. You can do the calculus yourself: assume that a 1/10 oz gold coin was put in the bank on interest in the year 1 AD on 4% interest. How much gold would you have by the year 2000?

    Well… 3.6 * 10^31 kilogramme of gold weighing 6,000,000 times the complete mass of the Earth.

    Savings are backed by debt so interest (usury) is the real cause of our predicament. To some point banking is inflationary as savings can be transformed into money but the interest cannot be paid out of the existing money supply so at some point an economic crisis sets in and banking becomes deflationary and creates an economic crisis.

    Most people like to ignore this basic fact and some blame fractional reserve banking. What is the difference between a savings account and a demand deposit if you can withdraw money from savings accounts any time you want? There is a large gray area of savings accounts and deposits that are withdrawable and are substitutes for money. Banks have a transformation function as they transform shorter term deposits in longer time loans.

    The problem is sticky and cannot be resolved by ending fractional reserve banking because accumulated interest is theoretically infinite. There is a solution: ban interest and charge a fee on money (demurrage) so it is profitable to make loans at 0% interest because you can evade the demurrage in this way. See also:

    http://www.naturalmoney.org/full-theory.html

    • rodney:

      Why make things easy, with a crystal clear analysis based on deductive logic, starting from axioms that cannot be denied, such as the fact that human beings act to achieve goals which they pursue in an attempt to alleviate some uneasiness (“Human Action”, Chapter I, Ludwig von Mises), when you can make things complicated, display to the entire world your mental state of confusion and come up with weird and untenable theories.

      Sure, a tax on holdings of money will solve all our problems. Because, you know, it is easy to confuse savings with money. It is also good for us to eliminate all interest, and therefore all credit, because, of course, don’t you know, all credit is bad, even legitimate credit backed by real savings, or as Keith would say, time deposits with perfect duration matching. And finally, a pearl of wisdom, we need money to circulate more because hoarding is bad, even though that’s the exact same worry that the French Revolutionary Assembly had when they first issued the assignats.

      Yes, things can get confusing when we want to build a thery without a conceptual framework.

      • niphtrique:

        Making assumptions about my mental state seems a refuge because you have no arguments.

        Vompound interest is theoretically infinite and that is a fact. Such a scheme cannot be maintained indefinitely and that is a fact. Abolishing fractional reserve banking does not solve this issue is a fact. It is impossible to refute this, without resorting to some kind of delusional thinking.

        For the rest you go on making assumptions about my thoughts, such as that I want to ban credit backed by legitimate savings, which I do not. It must be attractive to save money otherwise the idea will not work.

        Then you assume that I have no conceptional framework, which I have. We are living in controlled virtual reality and our thoughts and actions are controlled by a progamme. So, if God is willing, Natural Money will surely become the money of the future.

        I am aware of the fact that the theory has not been pointed out thoughtfully and that it needs addional source material. I am working on that, most notably on the influence of demurrage on the natural rate of interest.

  • SavvyGuy:

    Wow, summer flew by so fast! Is it already Halloween?

    • jimmyjames:

      “A chilling find has been made in Poland: at least 17 skeletons buried with the skulls severed and placed between the knees or hands. That, say archaeologists, is how vampires used to be interred, to stop them rising from the dead.

      ***********

      So… 500 years from now they will dig up massive sites of bodies that were buried with their skulls up their asses and archaeologists will conclude that these were the voters of their own demise during the 21st century?

  • rodney:

    Diggers are still searching for that most egregious of blood suckers: “QE to infinity and beyond!!!”

  • rodney:

    “Whatever it takes” seems to have had his legs cut below the knees, and “Irrational Exuberance” looks like his grave leaked water.

Your comment:

You must be logged in to post a comment.

Most read in the last 20 days:

  • 21st Century Shoe-Shine Boys
      Anecdotal Flags are Waved   "If a shoeshine boy can predict where this market is going to go, then it's no place for a man with a lot of money to lose." - Joseph Kennedy   It is actually a true story as far as we know – Joseph Kennedy, by all accounts an extremely shrewd businessman and investor (despite the fact that he had graduated in economics*), really did get his shoes shined on Wall Street one fine morning, and the shoe-shine boy, one Pat Bologna, asked him if...
  • Christopher Columbus and the Falsification of History
      Crazed Decision The Los Angeles City Council’s recent, crazed decision* to replace Christopher Columbus Day with one celebrating “indigenous peoples” can be traced to the falsification of history and denigration of European man which began in earnest in the 1960s throughout the educational establishment (from grade school through the universities), book publishing, and the print and electronic media.   Christopher Columbus at the Court of the Catholic Monarchs (a...
  • India: The Genie of Lawlessness is out of the Bottle
      Recapitulation (Part XVI, the Last) Since the announcement of demonetization of Indian currency on 8th November 2016, I have written a large number of articles. The issue is not so much that the Indian Prime Minister, Narendra Modi, is a tyrant and extremely simplistic in his thinking (which he is), or that demonetization and the new sales tax system were horribly ill-conceived (which they were). Time erases all tyrants from the map, and eventually from people’s...
  • The Forking Paradise - Precious Metals Supply and Demand Report
      Forking Incentives A month ago, we wrote about the bitcoin fork. We described the fork:   Picture a bank, the old-fashioned kind. Call it Acme (sorry, we watched too much Coyote and Road Runner growing up). A group of disgruntled employees leave. They take a copy of the book of accounts. They set up a new bank across the street, Wile E Bank. To win customers, they say if you had an account at Acme Bank, you now have an account at Wile, with the same balance!   BCH, son...
  • The Government Debt Paradox: Pick Your Poison
      Lasting Debt “Rule one: Never allow a crisis to go to waste,” said President Obama’s Chief of Staff Rahm Emanuel in November of 2008.  “They are opportunities to do big things.”   Rahm Emanuel looks happy. He should be – he is the mayor of Chicago, which is best described as crisis incarnate. Or maybe the proper term is perma-crisis? Anyway, it undoubtedly looks like a giant opportunity from his perspective, a gift that keeps on giving, so to speak. [PT] Photo...
  • The United States of Hubris
      Improving the World, One Death at a Time If anyone should have any questions about whether the United States of America is not the most aggressive, warlike, and terrorist nation on the face of the earth, its latest proposed action against the supposed rogue state of North Korea should allay any such doubts.   Throughout history, the problem with empires has always been the same: no matter how stable and invincible they appeared, eventually they ran into “imperial...
  • Long Term Statistics on AAPL
      Introductory Remarks by PT Below we present a recent article by the Mole discussing a number of technical statistics on the behavior of AAPL over time. Since the company has the largest market cap in the US stock market (~ USD 850 billion – a valuation that exceeds that of entire industries), it is the biggest component of capitalization-weighted big cap indexes and the ETFs based on them. It is also a component of the price-weighted DJIA. It is fair to say that the performance of...
  • Tragedy of the Speculations
      The Instability Problem Bitcoin is often promoted as the antidote to the madness of fiat irredeemable currencies. It is also promoted as their replacement. Bitcoin is promoted not only as money, but the future money, and our monetary future. In fact, it is not.   A tragedy... get the hankies out! :) [PT]   Why not? To answer, let us start with a look at the incentives offered by bitcoin. We saw a comment this week, which is apropos:   "Crypto is so...
  • Despite 24/7 Trading: Bitcoin Investors are Taking off for the Weekend on Friday Already
      Crypto-Statistics In the last issue of Seasonal Insights I have discussed how the S&P 500 Index performs on individual days of the week. In this issue I will show an analysis of the average cumulative annual returns of bitcoin on individual days of the week.   Bitcoin, daily. While this is beside the point, we note the crypto-currency (and other “alt coins” as well) has minor performance issues lately. The white line indicates important lateral support, but this looks to...
  • To Hell In A Bucket
      No-one Cares... “No one really cares about the U.S. federal debt,” remarked a colleague and Economic Prism reader earlier in the week.  “You keep writing about it as if anyone gives a lick.” We could tell he was just warming up.  So, we settled back into our chair and made ourselves comfortable.   The federal debtberg, which no-one cares about (yet). We have added the most recent bar manually, as the charts published by the Fed will only be updated at the end of the...
  • Precious Metals Supply and Demand
      Fundamental Developments There were big moves in the metals markets this week. The price of gold was up an additional $21 and that of silver $0.30. Will the dollar fall further?As always, we are interested in the fundamentals of supply and demand as measured by the basis. But first, here are the charts of the prices of gold and silver, and the gold-silver ratio.   Gold and silver prices in USD terms (as of last week Friday) - click to enlarge.   Next, this is a...
  • Precious Metals Supply and Demand
      Back to the Happy Place Amid a Falling Dollar The prices of the metals dropped this week, $24 and $0.38. This could be because the asset markets have returned to their happy, happy place where every day the stock market ticks up relentlessly.   Sometimes, happiness is fleeting... - click to enlarge.   The major currencies have been rising all year—we insist that this is a rise in these dollar derivatives, not a fall in the dollar—and this is a risk-on pattern....

Support Acting Man

j9TJzzN

Austrian Theory and Investment

Archive

350x200

THE GOLD CARTEL: Government Intervention on Gold, the Mega Bubble in Paper and What This Means for Your Future

Realtime Charts

 

Gold in USD:

[Most Recent Quotes from www.kitco.com]

 


 

Gold in EUR:

[Most Recent Quotes from www.kitco.com]

 


 

Silver in USD:

[Most Recent Quotes from www.kitco.com]

 


 

Platinum in USD:

[Most Recent Quotes from www.kitco.com]

 


 

USD - Index:

[Most Recent USD from www.kitco.com]

 

 
Buy Silver Now!
 
Buy Gold Now!
 

Oilprice.com